Indictment of the PCA Standing Judicial Commission | Exhibit 21

The Ministerial Obligation is provided in the PCA Handbook for Presbytery Clerks, year after year. All teaching elders must sign the same Confessional Subscription (BCO 13-7) corresponding to the same ordination vows (BCO 21-5) in order to be ordained, and their presbyteries must retain these contracts on file.

“And the LORD will make you the head and not the tail, and you shall only go up and not down, if you obey the commandments of the LORD your God, which I command you today, being careful to do them.” 

— Deuteronomy 28:13 

“One man of you puts to flight a thousand, since it is the LORD your God who fights for you, just as he promised you.” 

— Joshua 23:10 

“But you, take courage! Do not let your hands be weak, for your work shall be rewarded.” 

— II Chronicles 15:7 

“I shall not die, but I shall live,
and recount the deeds of the LORD.” 

— Psalm 118:17

“Who are you, O great mountain? Before Zerubbabel you shall become a plain. And he shall bring forward the top stone amid shouts of ‘Grace, grace to it!’’ …
I will make them strong in the LORD,
and they shall walk in his name,’
declares the LORD.”
— Zechariah 4:7, 10:12 

“Whatever you do, work heartily, as for the Lord and not for men, knowing that from the Lord you will receive the inheritance as your reward. You are serving the Lord Christ. For the wrongdoer will be paid back for the wrong he has done, and there is no partiality.” 

— Colossians 3:23-25 

“‘I indeed’ was this and that; ‘but He’ came, and a marvellous thing happened. Get to the margin where He does everything.” 

My Utmost for His Highest, on Matthew 3:11, Oswald Chambers, August 22 

Revelation 1:9-11
Exiled on the island of Patmos in the Aegean Sea, John may have felt that his usefulness for the Lord had come to an end. If so, he was in for a big surprise. In that barren setting Jesus Christ revealed a vision to John that detailed future events. God uses whomever He will, whenever and wherever He will. …
2 Samuel 20:14-22
This wise woman gives a perfect example of astute damage control. She saved the city by dealing judiciously and rationally with Joab to discover the reason for the siege. Having done so, she persuaded her people to hand Sheba over to Joab and thus averted a disaster. …
Job 32:1-37:24
Elihu finally spoke (he had wisely waited out of deference to the others until it had become clear that they were in error) and urged Job to humble himself while God purified him through the trials he had experienced. …
Ezra 4:1-5
Zerubbabel had to deal decisively with enemies who continually opposed the returned exiles’ rebuilding efforts. Zerubbabel not only coped effectively with this opposition but also made efforts to encourage his people during this time.” 

Handbook to Leadership: Leadership in the Image of God, Kenneth Boa, Sid Buzzell and Bill Perkins, pp. 581-582, 596 

“‘Moses … went out unto his brethren, and looked on their burdens.’ — Exodus 2:11
Moses saw the oppression of his people and felt certain that he was the one to deliver them, and in the righteous indignation of his own spirit he started to right their wrongs. …
We may have the vision of God and a very clear understanding of what God wants, and we start to do the thing; then comes something equivalent to the forty years in the wilderness, as if God had ignored the whole thing, and when we are thoroughly discouraged God comes back and revives the call, and we get the quaver in and say — ‘Oh, who am I?’ We have to learn the first great stride of God — ‘I AM THAT I AM … hath sent me.’”

My Utmost for His Highest, Oswald Chambers, October 13 

“Moses would soon discover that one plus God equals a majority.” 

Handbook to Leadership: Leadership in the Image of God, Kenneth Boa, Sid Buzzell and Bill Perkins, p. 734 

“Conviction has issued here truly into Christian life.
… It may come squarely into conflict, at some points, with the present leadership of the church. But because the fervent piety … may be opposed at some points to the ecclesiastical machinery, it does not follow that the ecclesiastical machinery should be allowed to crush it out. Long has been the conflict, during nineteen centuries, between ecclesiastical authority and the free and mysterious operation of the Spirit of God. But under our Presbyterian institutions the tyrannical practices to which ecclesiastical authority has elsewhere resorted are an anomaly and a shame.” 

— J. Gresham Machen, “The Attack upon Princeton Seminary: A Plea for Fair Play,” 1927 

“Surely oppression drives the wise into madness,
and a bribe corrupts the heart.
Better is the end of a thing than its beginning,
and the patient in spirit is better than the proud in spirit. …
Again I saw that under the sun the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, nor bread to the wise, nor riches to the intelligent, nor favor to those with knowledge, but time and chance happen to them all.” 

— Ecclesiastes 7:7-8, 9:11 

“I was very angry when I heard their outcry and these words. I took counsel with myself, and I brought charges against the nobles and the officials. … Then they said, ‘We will restore these and require nothing from them. We will do as you say.’ And I called the priests and made them swear to do as they had promised. I also shook out the fold of my garment and said, ‘So may God shake out every man from his house and from his labor who does not keep this promise. So may he be shaken out and emptied.’ And all the assembly said ‘Amen’ and praised the LORD. And the people did as they had promised. …
I also persevered in the work … Now what was prepared at my expense … Remember for my good, O my God, all that I have done for this people.” 

— Nehemiah 5:6, 12-13, 16, 18-19 

“And your ancient ruins shall be rebuilt;
you shall raise up the foundations of many generations;
you shall be called the repairer of the breach,
the restorer of streets to dwell in.” 

— Isaiah 58:12 

“Therefore, my beloved brothers, be steadfast, immovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, knowing that in the Lord your labor is not in vain.” 

— I Corinthians 15:58 

“The privilege claimed by the Independent ministers, of holding and teaching doctrines not in harmony with the Confession of Faith, is a privilege which, even if harmless in this particular case, might be abused as a precedent, and lead in other quarters and in other relations to serious mischief … in the event that the Independent ministers and churches cannot relinquish their particularities, with a good conscience, this Assembly will cherish them in the bonds of a Christian love but it cannot see its way clear to embrace them in the same denomination.” 

Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church (Old School), 1857, p. 42 

“He yet retains this principle, that it was impossible for God, who is the Judge of the world, and by nature loves equity yea, whose will is the law of justice and rectitude, should in the least degree swerve from righteousness. He desires, however, to be relieved from this difficulty with which he is perplexed. So, whenever different temptations contend within our minds, and some appearance of contradiction presents itself in the works of God, only let our persuasion of His justice remain fixed, and we shall be permitted to pour into His bosom the difficulties which torment us, in order that He may loosen the knots which we cannot untie.” 

John Calvin, Commentaries, on Genesis 18:25 

“Oh give thanks to the LORD, for he is good,
for his steadfast love endures forever!
Let the redeemed of the LORD say so, whom he has redeemed from trouble …
Let them extol him in the congregation of the people,
and praise him in the assembly of the elders.
Whoever is wise, let him attend to these things; let them consider the steadfast love of the LORD.” 

— Psalm 107:1-2, 32, 43 

“And Jesus said to him, ‘‘If you can’! All things are possible for one who believes.’” 

— Mark 9:23

“Things are only impossible until they’re not.” 

— Captain Jean-Luc Picard, Aldea Mission, stardate 41509.1 

“The problems of the world cannot possibly be solved by skeptics or cynics, whose horizons are limited by the obvious realities. We need men who can dream of things that never were, and ask why not. It matters not how small a nation is that seeks world peace and freedom, for, to paraphrase a citizen of my country, ‘the humblest nation of all the world, when clad in the armor of a righteous cause, is stronger than all the hosts of Error.’” 

— President John F. Kennedy, Address Before the Irish Parliament, June 28, 1963 

“It is said the wine of victory is sweetest for those in whose bitter trials it has fermented.” 

— Elrond Half-elven, Lord of Rivendell


04/18/2023: At its 188th Stated Meeting, the Central Florida Presbytery passes proposed changes to its Standing Rules which henceforth will circumscribe “out-of-bounds” calls for its teaching elders, effectively ending Presbytery’s 25-year program supplying PCA-credentialed ministers to Saint Andrew’s Chapel. This church was supposedly “independent” since its inception, yet always depended on the denomination for its pastoral leadership; all these years, the congregation had no Presbyterian rights while its out-of-bounds teaching elders enjoyed the zero-sum game of voting with one-way influence at Presbytery and General Assembly. Now, the tail no longer wags the dog.
But the precise text is publicly unavailable to date, because the last time this Presbytery updated with its Standing Rules was at least 15 years ago, with Rules from two years earlier. 

(Central Florida Presbytery Governing Documents, Standing Rules, 2006)

UPDATE: Presbytery eventually replaces the Standing Rules document with summary of updates: 

  • Article IV (Committees); Paragraph 4.G (Permanent Committees – Examining Committee) – Discusses the purpose and responsibilities of the Exam Committee, and the specific paperwork and examination requirements for candidates beyond what the BCO discusses 
  • Article IX (The Covenant) – Discusses the requirement for newly approved ordination candidates to submit to the vows listed in BCO 13-7 on the floor of Presbytery 
  • Appendix (Policy Regarding the Transfer of Credentialed Men from Other Denominations and Independency) – Discusses how to handle men wishing to transfer their existing ordination from a non-PCA denomination into the CFP. 

(Central Florida Presbytery Governing Documents, Standing Rules, 2023)


An Ecclesiastical Catechism of the Presbyterian Church, Thomas Smyth, 1831 

Chapter 2. Government of the church. 

Section 2. Of the Presbyterian form of church government. 

73. Is it, then, necessary, in order to constitute any particular church Presbyterian, that it should be in formal connection with a presbytery?
It has certainly been the unvarying doctrine of the Presbyterian church, founded on the word of God, that all particular churches should be united together, under one presbyterial government; and that any church, therefore, which remains in a state of isolated independency, or goes back to that condition, cannot be considered as a truly Presbyterian church.
74. What do you mean by the supreme headship of Jesus Christ?
By the supreme Headship of the Lord Jesus Christ, I mean, that under him the whole number of the elect shall be collected into one house and family of God; that he has given to the catholic visible church the ministry and ordinances, for the gathering and perfecting of the saints in this life, to the end of the world; that he does, by his own presence and Spirit, according to his promise, make them effectual thereunto; and that further, besides the Lord Jesus Christ, there is no other Head of the church having authority to legislate for it, or to frame laws and institute officers, binding on the consciences of men.
(Psalm 2:6, Matthew 28:20, I Peter 5:3) 

Chapter 4. Courts of the church. 

Section 3. Of the presbytery. 

167. What is the design and use of a presbytery?
It is a court of appeal from church sessions; it affords an opportunity for mutual consultation and advice; it is a bond of visible union; as authority, to which common submission is due, and by which is ordered whatever pertains to the spiritual welfare of the churches under its care.
168. What is the Scriptural warrant for presbyteries, as courts of the church?
The first argument is found in the ordinance of God, instituted by Moses, by which particular congregations were taught to bring their hard and difficult controversies to a superior ecclesiastical judicatory. This order was reestablished by Jehoshaphat, who established an ecclesiastical senate at Jerusalem, to receive complaints and judge causes brought before them. This form of government is also commended unto us by David, as the praise of Jerusalem. So that the ecclesiastical assemblies and synagogues in Israel were not independent, but were under the government of superior courts.
(Deuteronomy 17:8-12, II Chronicles 19:8-11, Psalm 122:4-5)
169. But how does this establish any authority for such courts now?
Because they formed no part of the ceremonial law, but were based upon the principles of common and perpetual equity; and therefore are such courts equally in accord with the Divine will, and advantageous to the church now.
(cf. WCF 19.4, WLC 120)
170. What other argument can you give for the establishment of such courts in the Christian church?
They are required by that rule of discipline laid down by our Lord, for its government: tell it unto the church. For, since Christ here gave no rule, the Christian church not being organized, but appeals to one already familiar, he must have referred to the practice of the synagogue discipline already described; and must, therefore, be considered as teaching that particular churches are not independent, but are to be in subjection to superior judicatories.
(Matthew 18:15-20) 

Section 6. Of the Presbytery — concluded. 

180. Is it necessary that all churches should be thus united together in one presbyterial government?
All the churches of Christ are certainly under obligation to conform to that primitive and scriptural order which is divinely authorized.
181. Why are they under this obligation?
Because the church, being a divine institution and not a mere voluntary or human society, particular churches are not at liberty to set aside any of the rules of Christ’s kingdom, and are therefore bound, if they have opportunity, to combine themselves into presbyteries for spiritual government.
182. Do they, by neglecting this order, commit evil?
Yes; all that neglect it offend against the communion of saints, and walk not as members of the Body of Christ.
(Romans 12:5, I Corinthians 12:25, Ephesians 4:16)
183. Do congregations, and their members, owe submission to the decrees of their presbyteries?
Such decrees are recognized by Jesus Christ, so far as they are in accord with his statutes, as contained in the Word of God; and to resist them, therefore, is, in such a case, to despise the authority of Christ.
(Matthew 16:19, cf. Isaiah 8:20, Acts 4:19)
184. Of what sin are churches guilty, who thus reject the scriptural determinations of their ecclesiastical courts?
Those churches which reject the sentence and determination of their church courts, when consonant to Scripture, commit a double sin; first, by transgressing against the written word of God; and secondly, by despising the ordinance of God, and throwing contempt upon the authority of his officers. For churches are just as much bound to their superior courts as are individual members to their particular churches; that is, so far as they act according to the truth and will of God. 

Chapter 7. Relation of the Presbyterian Church to other denominations and to the world. 

Section 2. Of prelacy. 

306. Is there any thing else in the prelacy to which Presbyterians object?
Yes; they object to the power of ordination, and other ecclesiastical functions, being vested exclusively in the unscriptural order of prelates, since this makes void the word of God, and leads to spiritual despotism. Again; they object to the unscriptural distinction between consecration, or the setting apart of prelates, and ordination, or the setting apart of presbyters, to the work of the Gospel ministry, as being wholly unauthorized by the word of God.
(I Timothy 4:14, Matthew 20:25, 27) 

Section 5. The advantages and claims of the Presbyterian church. 

326. Name some of the further advantages possessed by members of the Presbyterian church?
They possess the right of choosing their own pastors and elders; they are neither subject to the spiritual despotism of a priesthood, nor to anarchy and misrule; they can bring any matter, — whether it be unfaithfulness in ministers or elders, or in the other officers and members of the church, or errors in doctrine, — before the church courts, composed of an equal proportion of clergymen and of representatives of the people, chosen by themselves, for investigation and decision; and they have the privilege and power, when their rights as citizens of Zion are assailed, of appealing from one church court to another. 

“The commodity which may probably accrue hereupon, we hope shall be manifold. For:
1. Who can tell but that some of them that in some things are misled and contrary-minded may be convinced and re-gained? And it will be no small reward of our labors, if but one erring brother may be reduced.
2. Some satisfaction may redound to such as are of pendulous, doubtful, unresolved minds, by removing their doubts and scruples, and ripening of their resolutions to pitch more safely in point of church government.
3. Those that as yet are unseen [inexperienced; unread] in the matter of church government, or that want [lack] money to buy, or leisure to read many books upon this subject, may here have much in a little, and competently inform themselves of the whole body of the government.
4. Consequently upon the attaining of the former ends, the work of reformation will be much facilitated and smoothed, the hearts of the people being prepared for the Lord and His ordinances.
5. The present attempt (if it reach not to that completeness and satisfaction which is desired) may yet incite some of our brethren of more acute and polished judgments to embark themselves for some further discoveries for the public benefit of the church.
6. But though it should fall out that in all the former we should be utterly disappointed, we shall [still] have this peace and comfort in our own spirits, that we have not hidden our talents in the earth, nor neglected to bear witness to this part of Christ’s truth touching the government of His church by His kingly power, in which Christ was opposed so much in all ages (Ps. 2:1-3; Luke 19:14, 27; Acts 4), and for which Christ did suffer so much in a special and immediate manner as some have observed. For this end Christ came into the world (and for this end we came into the ministerial calling): to bear witness to the truth.” 

Jus Divinum Regiminis Ecclesiastici, pp. 40-41 

“The LORD will fulfill his purpose for me;
your steadfast love, O LORD, endures forever.
Do not forsake the work of your hands.” 

— Psalm 138:8 

“Let the one who is taught the word share all good things with the one who teaches. Do not be deceived: God is not mocked, for whatever one sows, that will he also reap. For the one who sows to his own flesh will from the flesh reap corruption, but the one who sows to the Spirit will from the Spirit reap eternal life. And let us not grow weary of doing good, for in due season we will reap, if we do not give up. So then, as we have opportunity, let us do good to everyone, and especially to those who are of the household of faith.
See with what large letters I am writing to you with my own hand. …
But far be it from me to boast except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by which the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world. For neither circumcision counts for anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation. And as for all who walk by this rule, peace and mercy be upon them, and upon the Israel of God.
From now on let no one cause me trouble, for I bear on my body the marks of Jesus.
The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit, brothers. Amen.” 

— Galatians 6:6-11, 14-18 

“Him we proclaim, warning everyone and teaching everyone with all wisdom, that we may present everyone mature in Christ. For this I toil, struggling with all his energy that he powerfully works within me.” 

— Colossians 1:28-29 

“If you put these things before the brothers, you will be a good servant of Christ Jesus, being trained in the words of the faith and of the good doctrine that you have followed. … For to this end we toil and strive, because we have our hope set on the living God, who is the Savior of all people, especially of those who believe.” 

— I Timothy 4:6, 10 

“And a harvest of righteousness is sown in peace by those who make peace.” 

— James 3:18 

“As each has received a gift, use it to serve one another, as good stewards of God’s varied grace: whoever speaks, as one who speaks oracles of God; whoever serves, as one who serves by the strength that God supplies — in order that in everything God may be glorified through Jesus Christ. To him belong glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.” 

— I Peter 4:10-11 

“‘Blessed are the poor in spirit. …’ This is the first principle in the kingdom of God. The underlying foundation of Jesus Christ’s kingdom is poverty, not possessions; not making decisions for Jesus, but having such a sense of absolute futility that we finally admit, ‘Lord, I cannot even begin to do it.’ Then Jesus says, ‘Blessed are you…’ (Matthew 5:11). This is the doorway to the kingdom, and yet it takes us so long to believe that we are actually poor! The knowledge of our own poverty is what brings us to the proper place where Jesus Christ accomplishes His work.” 

My Utmost for His Highest, Oswald Chambers, July 21 

“Give me a stock clerk with a goal and I will give you a man who will make history. Give me a man without a goal, and I will give you a stock clerk.” 

— attributed to James Cash Penney Jr., American retailer and philanthropist 

Proverbs 15:21
A person without a passion is easily distracted. Those with understanding realize the importance of a ‘straight course.’ A definite purpose keeps people focused. …
Proverbs 19:2
The ‘innovator’ or ‘change agent’ finds a wise caution in this proverb. Notice that the principle here does not condemn zeal or promptness but only describes how both of them can be beneficial. Think about this one.
Jeremiah 9:12
Defining what needs to be changed is often the toughest part of the change process. Whether attempting to ‘fix what is broke’ or ‘fix what ain’t broke,’ the leader must be clear on ‘why has the land (or whatever one is attempting to fix) been ruined?’
God calls for wise leaders, those who are guided by His values, to make systemic changes that ‘fix’ what really needs fixing, whether others see it as ‘broke’ or not.” 

Handbook to Leadership: Leadership in the Image of God, Kenneth Boa, Sid Buzzell and Bill Perkins, pp. 568, 587-588 

“Unless and until you do something with what you have learned, you might as well not have learned it. The person who won’t read is no better off than the person who can’t read. The person who knows but won’t use success principles and information is no better off than the person who doesn’t know them. …
Most people wait until everything is just right before they do anything. They refuse to go out on a limb because they don’t understand that the fruit is always out on the limb. …
Do you have a target or goal? You must have a goal because it’s just as difficult to reach a destination you don’t have, as it is to come back from a place you’ve never been.
Unless you have definite, precise, clearly set goals, you are not going to realize the maximum potential that lies within you. You’ll never make it as a ‘wandering generality.’ You must be a ‘meaningful specific.’
… when you’re frustrated, you can either wring your hands and lose what you have or roll up your sleeves and get what you want. … you go as far as you can see and when you get there, you will always be able to see further.
… ‘When you set a limit on what you are going to give and do, you set a ceiling on how high you are going and what you will have when you get there.’
… ‘Make no small plans for they have no capacity to stir men’s souls.’
Others can stop you temporarily — you are the only one who can do it permanently.
… Nobody, but nobody would ever attempt anything of significance if all obstacles had to be removed before they started. If you had called the Chief of Police before you left work this morning to inquire if all the lights were on green, he would have thought you were ‘under the influence.’ You know perfectly well you deal with the lights one at a time until you arrive at your destination. Yes, you just go as far as you can see, and when you get there you can always see farther. …
Take the hottest day the world has ever known, the most powerful magnifying glass you can buy in a store and a box of newspaper clippings. Hold the magnifying glass over the newspaper clippings. Even though you magnify the power of the sun through the glass, you will never start a fire — if you keep the glass moving. However, if you hold the glass still, and focus it on the paper, you harness the power of the sun and multiply it through the glass. Then you can start a roaring fire.
I don’t care how much power, brilliance or energy you have, if you don’t harness it and focus it on a specific target, and hold it there you’re never going to accomplish as much as your ability warrants. The hunter who brings back the birds doesn’t shoot the covey, he selects one quail as a specific target.
The art of goal setting is to focus on one specific, detailed objective. …
Confidence is the handmaiden of success.
a goal casually set and lightly taken is freely abandoned at the first obstacle.
The pessimist says, ‘I’ll believe it when I see it.’ The optimist says, ‘I’ll see it when I believe it.’ The optimist takes action – the pessimist takes a seat. … The person who is doing his best and is making a contribution is optimistic and confident because he is personally working on the solution. In life the difference between success and failure is often only an inch or two.
The story of life proves that it is often the minute things that spell the differences between triumph and tragedy, success and failure, victory or defeat. …
If you are a student and you study for grades, you will get them, but if you study for knowledge, you will get even better grades and considerably more knowledge. …
In the game of life, you retain that zest for living and for learning by constantly seeking to put into your mind the things which will result in growth. Peter Drucker expressed it this way, ‘Knowledge has to be improved, challenged and increased constantly or it vanishes.’
you don’t ‘pay the price’ you enjoy the price. … You pay the price for failure.
… Realistically, most locked doors are in your mind.
… They know that dedicated effort is its own reward and that what you get by reaching your objective is not as important as what you become by reaching that objective. …
If you want to reach your goal, you must ‘see the reaching’ in your own mind before you actually arrive at your goal.
go as far as you can see and, when you get there, you’ll always be able to see farther
As George Matthew Adams said, ‘He climbs highest, who helps another up.’ You can get everything in life you want if you help enough other people get what they want.
… In every field of endeavor, whether we seek a better job, more material goods, a closer walk with God, more loving children, a permanent and happy marriage or all of these things, we must ‘See the Reaching’ before we can ‘Reach the Reaching.’ …
Remember, the largest locomotive in the world can be held in its tracks while standing simply by placing a single one-inch block of wood in front of each of the eight drive wheels. The same locomotive moving at 100 miles per hour can crash through a wall of steel reinforced concrete five feet thick. That’s the way you are when you’re in action. Start now and get up that head of steam. Crash through those obstacles that stand between you and your goals. …
A positive attitude will have positive results because attitudes are contagious. One such attitude is enthusiasm. Elbert Hubbard said, ‘Nothing great has ever been accomplished without enthusiasm.’ … The word ‘enthusiasm’ comes from the Greek words en theos and simply means ‘God within.’ If you look at the world ‘enthusiasm’ the last four letters form an acrostic, ‘Iasm,’ which can stand for ‘I am, sold, myself.’ If you are sold yourself and if you truly believe in your cause, your company and your product, then you don’t have a ‘teeth-out’ enthusiasm. You have an enthusiasm that comes from the wellspring of all the resources within you. …
Unfortunately, many times the practical application of the philosophy goes in one ear and out the other. I would like to stress the fact that the most practical, beautiful, workable philosophy in the world won’t work — if you won’t. A wise man expressed it well, ‘Education covers a lot of ground, but it won’t cultivate any of it.’ …
Failure has been correctly identified as the line of least persistence, whereas success is often a question of simply sticking to the job and working and believing while you are sticking. … Success occurs when opportunity meets preparation … if you will pump long enough, hard enough and enthusiastically enough, sooner or later the effort will bring forth the reward. … happiness is not pleasure, it is victory.” 

See You At The Top, Zig Ziglar, pp. 37-38, 147, 153-154, 158, 161, 163-165, 171, 173, 203-205, 216-217, 182, 190-191, 193, 195, 197, 199, 210-211, 305, 319, 325, 344